This is a book series by the International Initiative for Promoting Political Economy. Over the last fifty years, mainstream economics has become inflexible, creating a stagnant field which has little bearing on the realities of modern political economy. The IIPPE series revives and renews our understanding of political economy. Drawing on rich traditions, each book engages with heterodox economics, critically assess mainstream economics, address contemporary developments, and offers radical, informed alternatives. The series editors are: Ben Fine, Professor of Economics at the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London // Dimitris Milonakis who earned his BA, MA and PHD in Economics from the Economics Department at the University of London.